Friday, March 20, 2020
Research Paper Final Draft Research Paper Final Draft Maria Flemming Ms. Stanek Honors English 10 12 January 2011 Smoking Bans: A Necessity Last year, tobacco consumption was blamed for fifty billion dollars in direct health care costs by anti-smoking organizations as well as one hundred billion dollars that was lost in productivity (Parrish). The smoking bans that have already been implemented help everything from the natural environment to the smokers themselves. Secondhand smoking is breathing the smoke from another personÃ¢â¬â¢s cigarettes, or breathing the smoke that the smoker exhales (Bailey, Sprague). Secondhand smoke greatly affects children and can cause them to develop permanent health problems. Adults are also affected; thousands of adults die each year because of the dangerous, but preventable effects of secondhand smoke. It might seem that smoking bans would drive some people away from businesses, but in fact, the opposite is true (Bailey, Sprague). All over the world, groups have been working to decrease smoking in public places. Smoking bans should be implemented in publ ic places because both the general population and businesses are in favor of the bans. This is because of the many negative health effects associated with secondhand smoke. First of all, smoking bans have already started to help. After Ireland passed several smoking bans, the amount of nicotine and carbon monoxide in the air decreased by more than eighty percent (Ã¢â¬Å"EuropeÃ¢â¬ ). In 2003, New York City was one of the first cities to ban public smoking; according to a study conducted by the Health Department, the improvement in air quality was almost immediate (Isralowitz). Alex Rich states in his article that, Ã¢â¬Å" Many smokers who are trying to quit have found that bans have aided in this effort by 'de-normalizing' the behavior and limiting the places they are allowed to light up. In fact, smoking bans have resulted in decreased tobacco consumption in some areas by as much as 10 percentÃ¢â¬ (Rich, Griswold). Therefore, bans help smokers to become healthier by decreasing the amount of smoking they can do. There are an overwhelming number of negative effects when people smoke in public places. Children are the most affected by secondhand smoke. In 2009, statistics showed that more women are smoking and as many as seven-hundred million children are exposed to secondhand smoke each year (Bailey, Sprague). Children and infants are greatly affected because their body systems are not yet fully developed (Rich, Griswold). For instance, one effect of secondhand smoke exposure is fluid building up in the middle ear, which causes a middle ear infection (Parrish). The biggest reason children are hospitalized each year is because of middle ear infections (Parrish). Secondhand smoke also affects a childÃ¢â¬â¢s teeth (Bailey, Sprague). According to the Academy of General Dentistry, children that breathe secondhand smoke regularly develop their permanent teeth about four months later than children not exposed to the smoke (Parrish). Even if someone only breathes a small amount of secondhand smoke at one time, the risk of developing heart disease increases by twenty-five to thirty percent (Isralowitz). Because the bodie s of young people are still forming, people under the age of eighteen are not permitted to buy cigarettes (Bailey, Sprague). If a young person smokes, it can permanently damage their lungs and cause pneumonia, asthma, and bronchitis (Rich and Griswold). Secondhand smoke is also related to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) (Isralowitz). If a woman is exposed to secondhand smoke while she is pregnant, her child is more likely to show symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), than a child that was not exposed the chemicals in secondhand smoke (Parrish). Approximately 150,000 to 300,000 children also develop lower respiratory tract infections because of the smoke (Parrish). A good reason to ban smoking in public places is to keep children safe. In many of the same ways,
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
Halloween Vocabulary in Spanish Are you celebrating Halloween? With this vocabulary list, you can do it in Spanish. la araÃ ±a - spider. la bruja - witch. Much like the English word, bruja can also be used to refer to a strongly disliked woman. el brujo - wizard, sorcerer. la calabaza - pumpkin. This word can also refer to various kinds of gourds, such as a calabash. la casa embrujada - haunted house. Embrujado is the past participle of embrujar, usually translated as to bewitch. el diablo - devil. The English and Spanish words come from the same Latin source. Note the similarity with diabolical. el disfraz - costume or disguise. el duende - goblin. The word can refer to various kinds of magical creatures such as elves and imps. A person who has a certain kind of magic or charm about him or her can be said to tener duende. los dulces, los caramelos - candy. As an adjective, dulce is simply the word for sweet. And while caramelo can refer to caramel, it most often refers to candies in general. Caramelo is probably related to miel, the word for honey. el esqueleto - skeleton. el fantasma - ghost. Like most other words of Greek origin that end in -ma, fantasma is masculine, making an exception to the rule that nouns ending in -a are typically feminine. el gato negro - black cat. el hechizo - spell (as from a witch). The word can also refer to a persons charm. The verb form, meaning to cast a spell, is hechizar. la jack-o-lantern - jack-o-lantern. The decoration can also be described as a calabaza iluminada, lighted pumpkin. la magia - magic. Something magical is mgico. la mscara - mask. This is the source of the English mascara. la momia - mummy. The English and Spanish come from an Arabic word referring to an embalmed body. el murciÃ ©lago - bat (the animal that flies). This word is derived from the Latin mouse (rat) and caecus (blind), so its original meaning was blind mouse. Noche de Brujas - Halloween. The phrase literally translates as Witches Night, and DÃ a de Brujas, Witches Day, is also used. It also is very common in the United States and some other areas with U.S. influence to use Halloween. el superhÃ ©roe, la superheroÃ na - superhero. In modern usage, it is not unusual to hearÃ the form la superhÃ ©roeÃ for a female superhero. la telaraÃ ±a - cobweb, spider web. This is a combination of two words, tela, usually referring to fabric, and araÃ ±a, the word for spider. In a different context, telaraÃ ±a can also refer to a net (such as one for catching fish) or a tangle of cables, strings or similar items. truco o trato - trick or treat. The English phrase is often used as well. Truco is often translated as trick, such as a trick of the trade or a magic trick. Trato, on the other hand, normally is a contract or agreement. It doesnt mean treat, although it can mean treatment when it refers to the way someone treats someone else. el vampiro, la vampira - vampire. The word probably came from Hungarian. el/la zombi - zombie. The English spelling is sometimes used.
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Data mining Assignment - Essay Example Generally there are incidences of fraud that have not yet been detected (Borzykowski, 2012 p. 34). With increased cases of fraud, it is a high time for effective measures to be applied to combat these crimes for once and for all. All the merchants, banking systems and the card owners should enroll on application of effective measures. With the application of data mining, one is capable of determining the hot spots which are the target for these crimes. Due to increased technology in businesses, application of computer science Information Technology would help solve this phenomenon (Borzykowski, 2012 p. 34). Efficient fraud detection unveils suspicious behaviors providing alarms to the organization.Cases of fraud experienced in data mining are collected (Tan, 2013, p.345). Metrics for calculating the fraud data are designed and an automated mode of their calculation is developed. Finally the IT expertÃ¢â¬â¢s develops a detection model for the fraud. Globally more than 30% of firms h ave experienced fraud in the year 2009.Retail businesses like supermarket have enrolled in usage of closed-circuit televisions in conjunction with POS data in fraud detection (Tan, 2013, p.345). 2. Introduction Fraud detection can be categorized into statistical techniques and artificial intelligence. Statistical data analysis involves pre-processing of data like detection, validation, error correction; missing and invalid data rectification. One can match algorithms in detection of any abnormality in transactions. Forensic accountants specialize in procurement and analysis of electronic data in detection and rectification of an error. Merchandising agents have started using un-supervised methods like Break Point Analysis and Bolton Hand Use Analysis in detection of credit cards accounts frauds. Peer group analysis is capable of detecting individuals who behave in a different way compared to the previous individuals seen. Break point analysis detects the abnormal transactions in a g iven account (Robert, John and Gary, 2009, p.543). A three level profiling operates at the account level to detect any form of fraud. Normal profiling and behavioral profiling are applied. Human pattern reorganization and automated data algorithms are linked to create Domain-Specific Interfaces to visually present the accounts holderÃ¢â¬â¢s data (Robert et al 2009, p.543). Banks should start using advanced software to detect any miscellaneous transactions. More security measures like pin and ZIP codes should be provided by the customer whenever he or she is conducting any transaction. The software will detect any transaction done at a far distance from the card ownerÃ¢â¬â¢s geographical location. More details of the card owner like a passport photo should be displayed every time. The photo will enable the merchant or the bank to compare the physical appearance of the customer and determine if he or she is the authorized person. One will be able to determine the common area in wh ich the owner conducts his or her transaction most frequently (Borzykowski, 2012 p. 35). Card owners should also be vigilant by ensuring that they do perform regular checks of their accounts. They should keep their important documents in safe places and besides being cautious on the people whom they have authorized to perform their transactions. The government needs to take serious measures on any person accused of conducting fraud crimes (Borzykowski, 2012 p. 35). 3. Data Mining Data mining is a field of computer science that deals with
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Comparing Marcuse, Freire and Gramsci - Essay Example According to his theory of politics, the downfall of the emancipator politics is caused by little understanding of the basis of power of the institution. The lack of adequate knowledge is majorly brought about by the relationship that existed between politics and the popular culture. According to the theory, the political education of a marginalized area determines the occurrence of changes in the political and social life of the region. In order to eliminate the domination relations, a new culture has to be created. The masses should also be transformed into being conscious of the political on-goings in the state. According to GramsciÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of politics, in the modern state, the relations of domination are maintained and protected by the coercion and force (Borg, Buttigieg & Mayo 27). The relations are also maintained through the practices of consent and persuasion.
Saturday, January 25, 2020
diversity in organizations Introduction This paper aims to show a deep examination of how diversity is interpreted and wrongfully applied in many organizations today. In this essay, I would explore and discuss the term Ã¢â¬Å"DiversityÃ¢â¬ , its definitions, merits, demerits, its varied applications and if there is a cause and effect relationship between diversity workforce and organizational effectiveness. This essay would also show why the term diversity is remotely satisfying and elaborate on the need for a new paradigm for understanding Diversity. My study supports the principles of the Diversity theory but not its varied applications which inhibit organizational effectiveness. Diversity The term Ã¢â¬Å"diversityÃ¢â¬ has found its place in almost all HRM literature; the front page. Jackson et al (1993), states that Ã¢â¬Å"the term diversity has little history within the behavioural sciences and is not (yet) a scientific construct. Instead, it is an everyday term that sprang to life rather recently, nourished by widespread media coverage of the Ã¢â¬Å"managing diversityÃ¢â¬ activities that organizations are adopting in response to changing work-force demographics. Nevertheless, the body of social science research relevant to understanding the dynamics of diversity in organizations is not large, although it is widely dispersed across sub disciplines that cross reference each other nor have a common terminologyÃ¢â¬ (See Friedman, 1996:67). Another interesting definition is found in Ashkanasy et al (2002) which defines diversity as a concept that Ã¢â¬Å"encompasses acceptance and respect. It means the understanding that each individual is unique and recognizing our individual differences. They can be along the dimensions of race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, socio economic status, age, physical abilities, religious beliefs, political beliefs and other ideologies and the exploration of these differences in a safe, positive and nurturing environment. Diversity is about understanding each other and moving beyond simple tolerance to embracing and celebrating the rich dimensions of diversity contained within each individualÃ¢â¬ Allen et al (2008) asserts that diversity is a challenge and that Ã¢â¬Å"organizations have struggled to embrace and manage it successfully. Researchers have struggled to conceptualize and study the term effectively. Theorists predict differing effects of Diversity: that they will spark integrative insights, creativity and innovation (e.g. Finkelstein and Hambrick, 1996; Hoffman and Maier, 1961) or that they will provoke conflict, division and dissolution (e.g. Chatman, 1991; Tajfel and Turner, 1979)Ã¢â¬ . Workforce Diversity (A Critical Analysis) Structural Diversity Vs Demographic Diversity Ã¢â¬Å"The demographics of the workforce are changing and will continue to change rapidly. Almost every organization looks different Ã¢â¬â both in terms of whoÃ¢â¬â¢s employed and they positions they hold, than it did ten years agoÃ¢â¬ (Sonnenschien, 1999:2). Jackson et al (1995) also asserts that the Ã¢â¬Å"changing work-force demographics and new organizational forms are increasing the diversity of work teams in general and decision making teams in particular. Given these environmental changes, work teams that are diverse in terms of sex, race, and ethnicity, national origin, area of expertise, organizational affiliation and many other personal characteristics are increasingly common. The changing demographics of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s labour force, account for the increasing gender diversity, cultural diversity (including cultural differences due to race and ethnicity) and age diversity (See Kling, Hyde, Showers and Buswell, 1999; Konrad, Ritchie, Lieb and Corrigall, 2000; Roberso n and Block, 2001)Ã¢â¬ . According to Ongari and Argolla (2007) Ã¢â¬Å"Workforce diversity is a complex phenomenon to manage in an organization. The management of workforce diversity as a tool to increase organizational effectiveness cannot be underscored, especially with current changes sweeping across the globe. It is argued that organizations that value diversity will definitely cultivate success and have a future in this dynamic global labour market (Jain and Verma, 1996). Workforce diversity management has become an important issue for both governments and private organizations. Its importance has mainly been brought about by the free movement of labour due to globalization and the fight for human rights by certain minority groups who feel excluded from the employment sector. The workforce diversity emerged mainly to further the availability of equal opportunities in the work place. This equal opportunity philosophy is aimed at ensuring that organizational make the most out of the difference from a dive rse workforce rather than losing talent which might assist the organization to be more efficient and effective. The increased mobility and interaction of people from diverse backgrounds as a result of improved economic and political systems and the recognition of human rights by all nations has put most organizations under pressure to embrace diversity at the work place. Diversity brings with it the heterogeneity that needs to be nurtured, cultivated and appreciated as means of increasing organizational effectivenessÃ¢â¬ . A more diverse workforce according to Thomas and Ely (1996) will increase organizational effectiveness. Ã¢â¬Å"It would lift morale, bring greater access to new segments of the market place and enhance productivity. Yet if this is true, what then are the positive impacts of diversity? Numerous and varied initiatives to increase diversity in corporate organizations have been under way for over a decadeÃ¢â¬ (Sonnenschein, 1992:49). Ã¢â¬Å"Rarely, however, have those efforts spurred organizational effectiveness, Instead, many attempts to increase diversity in the workplace have backfired, sometimes even heightening and hindering a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s performanceÃ¢â¬ (Tsui and Gutek, 1999). As is commonly ascribed, Riodan (2000) asserts most people assume that workforce Ã¢â¬Å"diversity is about increasing racial, national, gender or class representation in other words, recruiting and retaining most people from traditionally underrepresented identity groupsÃ¢â¬ . Taking this commonly held supposition as a starting point, Thomas and Ely (1996) set out to investigate the link between diversity and organizational effectiveness and they found that Ã¢â¬Å"thinking of diversity simply in terms of identifying group representations inhibited effectivenessÃ¢â¬ . They also found that organizations usually follow Ã¢â¬Å"two paths in managing diversity, In the name of empathy and fairness, the organizations encourage women and people of colour to blend in or they set them apart in jobs that relate specifically to their backgrounds, assigning them, for example to areas that require them to interface with clients and customers of the same identity groupÃ¢â¬ . In this kind of c ase, companies are operating on the assumption that the main virtue identity groups have to offer is knowledge of their own people. Ã¢â¬Å"This assumption is limited and detrimental to diversity effortsÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"(See Elsass Graves, 1997; Finkelstein Hambrick, 1996; Jackson, May and Whitney, 1995; Milliken Martins, 1996; Reskin, McBrier Kmec, 1999; Shaw Barrett Power, 1998)Ã¢â¬ A recent meta-analysis of the effects of task related (e.g. tenure) and non task related (e.g. ethnic and gender) diversity, by Weber Donahue (2001) Ã¢â¬Å"revealed no dependable effects on organizational effectiveness, performance or cohesivenessÃ¢â¬ . Williams and OÃ¢â¬â¢Reilly (1998) assert that Ã¢â¬Å"diversity goes beyond increasing the number of different identity groupsÃ¢â¬â¢ affiliationsÃ¢â¬ in a company but that diversity should be seen and Ã¢â¬Å"understood as the varied perspectives and approaches to work that members of different identity groups bringÃ¢â¬ . Another argument is by Cummings (2004) which says that Ã¢â¬Å"effective work groups engage in external knowledge sharing- the exchange of information, know-how and feedback with customers, organizational experts and others outside the group. This paper argues that the value of external knowledge sharing increases when work groups are structurally diverseÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"A structurally diverse work group is one in which the members, by virtue of their different organizational affiliations, roles or positions, can expose the group to unique sources of knowledge. It is hypothesized that if members of structurally diverse work groups engage in external knowledge sharing, their performance will improve because of this active exchange of knowledge through unique external sourcesÃ¢â¬ . Cummings (2004) also assert that Ã¢â¬Å"scholars examining diversity in work groups have primarily focused on the consequences of demographic diversity (e.g. member differences in sex, age, or tenure) for processes such as communication, conflict, or social integrationÃ¢â¬ ( See also Jehn et al, 1999, Pelled et al, 1999 and OÃ¢â¬â¢Reilly et al, 1989). Ã¢â¬Å"The consistently negative effects of demographic diversity on group processes are likely the result of heightened member emphasis on social categories rather than project relevant information. Demographic diversity should not increase the value of intra-group knowledge sharing or external knowledge sharing unless it exposes members to unique sources of knowledge related to the workÃ¢â¬ (for a review see Williams and OÃ¢â¬â¢Reilly. 1998). Relatively, Ã¢â¬Å"little attention has been given to member differences in organizational affiliations, roles or positions. With the rise in labour costs, global expansion and corporate mergers, workgroups are often used as a means for connecting members who are dispersed across different geographic locations, who represent different functions and report to different managers or who work in different business units Ã¢â¬Å" (DeSanctis and Monge, 1999; Jarvenpaa and Leidner, 1999; Maznevski and Chudoba, 2000). This variation in features of the group structure is introduced here as Ã¢â¬Å"structural diversity because of its potential to expose members to different sources of task information, know-how and feedback. Four types of structural diversity in work groupsÃ¢â¬ are mentioned below as: Ã¢â¬Å"Geographic locationsÃ¢â¬ (See Van den Bulte Moenaert, 1998), Ã¢â¬Å"Functional assignmentsÃ¢â¬ (See Bunderson Sutcliffe, 2002), Ã¢â¬Å"Reporting managersÃ¢â¬ (e.g. Burns, 1989) and in Ã¢â¬Å"Business unitsÃ¢â¬ (See Hansen, 2002) Another research done by Siciliano (1996) on 240 YMCA organizations, found no significant relationship between diversity and organizational effectiveness. Middleton (1987) also asserted that Ã¢â¬Å"diversity in any form has no impact on the operating efficiencies of an organization and diversity does not appear to influence one way or another, an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s tendency to perform its control function. Merits of Managing Workforce Diversity Ã¢â¬Å"Managing diversity can create a competitive advantage. Potential benefits of diversity include better decision making, higher creativity and innovation, greater success in marketing to foreign and domestic ethnic minority communities and a better distribution of economic opportunityÃ¢â¬ (Cox, 1991; Cox Blake, 1991). According to one study (Watson et al, 1993) Ã¢â¬Å"culturally diverse groups relative to homogenous groups are more effective both in the interaction process and job performance; these benefits occur after a diverse group has been put together for a period of timeÃ¢â¬ . Mueller (1998) states that Ã¢â¬Å"as all the segments of society have a stake in the development and prosperity of society as a whole, creating and managing a diverse workforce should be seen as a social and moral imperativeÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"As globalisation is increasing, diversity will help organizations to enter the international arenaÃ¢â¬ (Cascio, 1998). Ã¢â¬Å"Diversity enhances creativi ty and innovation (Adler, 1997; Jackson et al, 1992) and produces competitive advantages (Coleman, 2002; Jackson et al, 1992)Ã¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"Diversity teams make it possible to enhance flexibility (Fleury, 1999) and rapid response and adaptation to change (Adler, 1997Ã¢â¬â¢ Jackson et al, 1992)Ã¢â¬ . Organizational Challenges Ã¢â¬Å"Companies can succeed at diversity if the initiative to create, manage and value the diverse workforce has the full support of the top managementÃ¢â¬ (Hayes, 1999; Jackson et al, 1992). Fiske, 1993 states that Ã¢â¬Å"for increased effectiveness and adaptation of the diversity discourse, companies have to start thinking about diversity more holistically- Ã¢â¬Å"as providing fresh and meaningful approaches to work and stop assuming that diversity relates simply to how a person looks or whereÃ¢â¬ they are from, only then would companies reap diversityÃ¢â¬â¢s full rewardsÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Organizations with a diverse workforce can provide superior services because they can better understand customersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs (Weitling Palma-Rivas, 2000). Hiring women, minorities, disabled, etc will help organizations to tap into these niche markets (Mueller, 1998) and diversified market segmentsÃ¢â¬ (Fleury, 1999). Jackson et al (1995) state that Ã¢â¬Å"the business economy has received much recent attention, with trade barriers are removed and competition intensifies, many companies are beginning to expand their operations in order to take advantage of foreign labour and consumer markets. For smaller companies, foreign activities may be limited to a single joint venture or to offshore production or distribution systems that involve one or two other countries. For larger corporations, foreign offices may be in over one hundred different countries (See Fulkerson Schuler, 1992). The presence of international affiliations, although not inevitable, is likely to lead eventually to the formation of teams of people with diverse cultural backgrounds, including management teams, design teams, operation teams and marketing teams (Adler Ghadar, 1991; Kanter, 1991; Von Glinow Mohrman, 1990) of which engage in decision making activitiesÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Theories and techniques of diversity management have been developed and enthusiastically supported by a growing number of chief executives, training specialists, diversity consultants and academicsÃ¢â¬ (Saji, 2004)). Diversity can improve organizational effectiveness. Ã¢â¬Å"Organizations that develop experience in and reputations for managing diversity will likely attract the best personnel (Carrel et al, 2000). Ã¢â¬Å"Diversity requires a type of organizational culture in which each employee can pursue his or her career aspirations without being intimidated by gender, race, nationality, religion or other factors that are irrelevant to performanceÃ¢â¬ (Bryan. 1999). Managing diversity means Ã¢â¬Å"enabling the diverse workforce to perform its full potential in an equitable work environment, where no one group has an advantage or disadvantageÃ¢â¬ (Torres Bruxelles, 1992). Ã¢â¬Å"Diversity in the workplace can be a competitive advantage because differing viewpoints can facilitate unique and creative approaches to problem-solving, thereby increasing creativity and innovation, which in turn leads to better organizational performanceÃ¢â¬ (Allen et al, 2004). Ã¢â¬Å"For example, in Botswana, the society is becoming multicultural due to the increasing migrant population and their descendants. For organizations, this means that their market share, efficiency. Ã¢â¬Å"Human capital, international competitiveness and level of innovation will depend on their ability to effectively manage a diverse workforce both within and across organizational boundariesÃ¢â¬ (Barker Hartel, 2004; Dass Parker, 1996; Kandola et al, 1995; Strauss Mang, 1999)Ã¢â¬ Conclusions Jackson (2003) Ã¢â¬Å"In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s business environment, work teams are becoming more common and more diverse, intensifying the importance of understanding the dynamics of work- team diversity. Of particular importance, is diversity within decision making teams. Organizations are rapidly restructuring to take advantage of the potential benefits of diverse decision making teams are worth the risk (or can be successfully avoided). Many of the specific assets and liabilities of work teams arise directly out of diversityÃ¢â¬ . Despite various intensive efforts to measure diversity and predict its outcomes, Jackson (2003) asserts Ã¢â¬Å"many literature offer few conclusive findings about the effects of diversity in the workplace. Lack of a common paradigm will make it difficult to accumulate comparable findings over time, while agreement around some issues could accelerate our ability to learn from previous accumulated evidence. One useful element that could be suggested could be a common paradigm; it would be for researchers to agree to a common theme or definition of diversity which would in turn lead to less confusion about this conceptÃ¢â¬ (See also Carroll Harrison, 1998; Bedeian Mossholder, 2000). Jackson (2003) affirms that Ã¢â¬Å"Pettigrew (1998) used a very different approach to developing a blueprint for enabling organizational effectiveness. Based on a comprehensive review of a large body of research conducted in a variety of settings, Pettigrew identified the conditions needed to reduce intergroup bias and its negative consequence and described several processes that could be engaged to create these conditions. To the extent an originationÃ¢â¬â¢s diversity initiatives support these processes, they would encourage the development of positive intergroup relations, employee commitment, improved productivity and increased organizational effectiveness (See also Gaertner et al, 2000) and they are: Learning about the other group(s) was one key process identified by Pettigrew, Inaccurate stereotypes resist change for a variety of reasons but inaccurate stereotypes can be modified if people receive sufficient disconfirming evidence. Such learning is often the objective of diversity awareness training. Behavioural Change is the second key process that is needed to promote positive intergroup relations. Engaging repeatedly in positive behaviour with members of a work team can lead to long term attitudinal change towards members. Providing training in the behavioural competencies needed to work effectively in organizations characterized by diversity is one way to encourage people to engage in positive behaviour towards work group members Creating positive emotions associated with the work group is the third key process. For example, mentoring programs may encourage the development of intergroup friendships. The value of personal friendships may help explain the apparent success of informal mentoring programsÃ¢â¬ . In conclusion, it seems likely that active diversity management will be required in order for organizations to comprehend the potential benefits locked up within their diverse work forces and as such organizations must put in place strategies to enhance workforce diversity. Ã¢â¬Å"Research based principles for achieving these benefits and minimising potential losses have been offered. Some organizations are undoubtedly experimenting with practises that are consistent with these principlesÃ¢â¬ Jackson et al (1995). By the end of this decade, perhaps another review of diversity will yield useable suggestions for how to create a sustainable and effective organizational condition called for by PettigrewÃ¢â¬â¢s analysis. References Allen, R.S., Dawson, G., Wheatley, K and White, C.S. (2008) Ã¢â¬Å"Perceived Diversity and Organizational PerformanceÃ¢â¬ Employee Relations, Vol. 30, No. 1, pp. 20-33. Ashkanasy, N.M., Hartel, C.E.J. and Dass, C.S (2002) Ã¢â¬Å"Diversity and Emotion: The New Frontiers in Organizational Behaviour ResearchÃ¢â¬ Journal of Management, Vol. 28, pp. 307-338. Barker, S. and Hartel C.E.J (2004) Ã¢â¬Å"Intercultural service encounter: An exploratory study of customer experiencesÃ¢â¬ Journal of Cross Cultural Management, Vol. 11(1) pp. 3-14. Bedian, A.G and Mossholder, K.W (2000) Ã¢â¬Å"On the use of the coefficient of variations as a measure of diversityÃ¢â¬ Organizational research Methods, Vol. 3: 285-297. Bryan J.H (1999) Ã¢â¬Å"The diversity ImperativeÃ¢â¬ Executive Excellence, pp6 Bunderson, J.S and Sutcliffe K.M (2002) Ã¢â¬Å"Comparing alternative conceptualizations of functional diversity in management teams: process and performance effectsÃ¢â¬ Academy of Management Journal, 45:875-893 Carroll, G.R and Harrison, J.R (1998) Ã¢â¬Å"Organizational demography and culture: insights from a former model and simulationÃ¢â¬ Administrative Science Quarterly, vol. 43:637-667 Cascio, W.F (1998) Ã¢â¬Å"Managing Human Resources Productivity, Quality of Work Life, ProfitsÃ¢â¬ , McGraw Hill, Boston, MA Cox T Blake S. (1991) Ã¢â¬Å"Managing Cultural Diversity: Implications for Organizational CompetitivenessÃ¢â¬ The Academy of Management Executive, August. Cox T (1991) Ã¢â¬Å"The multicultural organizationÃ¢â¬ the academy of management executive, May Cummings J (2004), Work groups, structural diversity, and knowledge sharing in a global organization, Management Science, Vol. 50 pp.352 364. Cummings, J. N. Cross, R. (2003) Ã¢â¬Å"Structural Properties of Work Groups and their Consequences for PerformanceÃ¢â¬ Social Networks, Vol. 25 (3), 197-210. Dass, P Parker B (1999) Ã¢â¬Å"Strategies for managing human resource diversity: from resistance to learningÃ¢â¬ Academy of Management Executive, vol. 13: 68-80 Elsass, P.M Graves L.M (1997) Ã¢â¬Å"Demographic diversity in decision making groups: The experiences of women and people of colourÃ¢â¬ Academy of Management review, Vol 22: 946-973 Ely R.J Thomas D.A (2001) Ã¢â¬Å"Cultural diversity at work: The effects of diversity perspectives on work group processes and outcomesÃ¢â¬ Administrative Science Quarterly, vol 46: 229-273. Fiske, S. (1993) Ã¢â¬Å"Social Cognition and Social PerceptionÃ¢â¬ in Rozenwig M.R L.W Porter (Eds) Annual Review of Psychology, Vol. 44:155-194. Pato Alto, CA: Annual Reviews Inc. Friedman, R.A (1996) Ã¢â¬Å"Defining the scope and logic of minority and female network groups: can separation enhance integration?Ã¢â¬ Research in Personnel and Human Resource Management, vol. 14: 307-349 Fleury, 1999 Gaertner S.L, Dovidio, J.F, Banker B.S, Houlette, M, Johnson K.M and Mc Glynn, E.A (2000) Ã¢â¬Å"Reducing intergroup conflict: From super ordinate goals to categorization, recategorization and mutual differentiationÃ¢â¬ Group dynamics: Theory, Research and practise, Vol 4: 98-114. Hayes, E. (1999) Ã¢â¬Å"Winning at DiversityÃ¢â¬ Executive Excellence pp.9 Klein, K. J. Harrison, D. A. (2007) Ã¢â¬Å"On the diversity of diversity: Tidy logic, messier realitiesÃ¢â¬ Academic of Management Perspectives, 21(4): 26-33. Jackson, B.W, La Fasto, F, Schultz, H.G, Kelly, D (1992) Ã¢â¬Å"DiversityÃ¢â¬ Human Resource Management, vol 31,pp.21-34 Jackson, S.E, Joshi, A and Erhardt, N.L (2003) Ã¢â¬Å"Recent Research in Team and Organizational Diversity: SWOT analysis and ImplicationsÃ¢â¬ Journal of Management, vol. 29, No. 6, pp.801-830. Jackson, S.E, May, K.E Whitney, K. (1995) Ã¢â¬Å"Under the dynamics of diversity in decision making teamsÃ¢â¬ in Guzzo, A Salas, E. (Eds) Team effectiveness and decision making in organizations, pp. 204-261. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Jackson, S.E, Stone, V.K Alvarez, E.B (1993) Ã¢â¬Å"Socialization amidst diversity: impact of demographics on work team old timers and newcomersÃ¢â¬ Research in Organizational Behaviour, Vol. 15: 45-111. Jehn, K.A, Northcraft, G.B Neale, M.A (1999) Ã¢â¬Å"Why differences make a difference: a field study in diversity, conflict and performance in workgroupsÃ¢â¬ Administrative Science Quarterly, vol.44, pp. 741-763. Kandola, R, Fullerton, J and Ahmed, Y (1995) Ã¢â¬Å"Managing diversity: succeeding where equal opportunities have failedÃ¢â¬ Equal Opportunities Review, 59:31-36. 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Friday, January 17, 2020
Often overlooked in the critical analysis of the play, Horatio is a character whose actions are of no major importance, yet in the context of the playÃ¢â¬â¢s meaning, his role is crucial. Like the Ghost, Horatio helps Shakespeare to refine the concept of the virtuous man. This is shown through HoratioÃ¢â¬â¢s ideals, his relationship with Hamlet, their differences and similarities. We assume that his studies in Wittenberg make develop his rational thinking and thus he would naturally reject the possibility of a ghost Ã¢â¬â however he is the one to tell Hamlet about his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s apparition. Even after witnessing the Ghost, Horatio remains a rationalist. His mind is sober, and he encourages Hamlet to preserve self-control Ã¢â¬â a key virtue of the Stoics. Yet when Hamlet dies (possibly in HoratioÃ¢â¬â¢s arms, depending on stage directions) the roles reverse Ã¢â¬â Horatio, charged by HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s passion, almost dies with the prince. For the audience, Horatio becomes a separate and important entity as Hamlet delivers the speech about his character that defines HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s own ideals. Shakespeare gives Hamlet the chance to voice the faculties he admires, thus giving us another chance to understand the greater aspirations and aims of the protagonist. He says: Ã¢â¬ËHoratio, thou art eÃ¢â¬â¢en as just a man As eÃ¢â¬â¢er my conversation coped withal. Nay do not think I flatter,Ã¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ¦ Since my dear soul was mistress of her choice, And could of men distinguish, her election Hath sealed thee to herself; for thou hast been As one, in suffÃ¢â¬â¢ring all, that suffers nothing; A man that FortuneÃ¢â¬â¢s buffets and rewards Hath taÃ¢â¬â¢en with equal thanks; and blest are those Whose blood and judgment are so well co-mingled That they are not a pipe in FortuneÃ¢â¬â¢s finger To sound what stop she please. Give me that man. That is not passionÃ¢â¬â¢s slave, and I will wear him In my heartÃ¢â¬â¢s core, ay in my heart of heart, As I do thee. Ã¢â¬Ë (3. 253-73) Horatio is not passionÃ¢â¬â¢s slave Ã¢â¬â if passions, like Fortune, is personified, then it becomes a sort of ancient deity that chooses to blind humans and deny them all rational choice. To a certain extent, all other characters in the tragedy are to varying degree subject to their passions. Horatio by contrast is calm and stable; he is skeptical and rational, as can be seen from his encounter with the Ghost. If passion is a disease-like quality that Hamlet believes to be defectious, then Horatio exemplifies a pure and honourable person Ã¢â¬â honest by definition, since he does not allow passions to fool his conscience and justify any selfish means or aims. However the most important aspect highlighted by the Prince is HoratioÃ¢â¬â¢s philosophical understanding of life. The speech suggests Horatio is a follower of Stoicism, an ancient way of thinking developed once by the ancients and then revived by the great thinkers of the Renaissance. Founded by Xenon, (334-262b. c. ) the philosophy taught to discipline oneÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour according to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s rational mind. Hamlet states that his ideal is such. However the prince himself is not Ã¢â¬ËfreeÃ¢â¬â¢ or deprived of passions. The qualities he admires in Horatio are starkly different to the ones he himself displays in his very first monologue. He speaks of evil as Ã¢â¬Ëself-slaughterÃ¢â¬â¢ and cannot come to terms with things Ã¢â¬Ërank and grosse in natureÃ¢â¬â¢ (1. 2) Hamlet is a man of many different moods and tempers; in this one speech he begins disgusted, grows more passionate in his hatred and it is not until the last two line of that speech when Hamlet says Ã¢â¬ËI must hold my tongueÃ¢â¬â¢ and regains control of his emotions. It is clear the protagonist cannot remain unaffected when he sees evilÃ¢â¬â¢s manifestation in any form; his whole being actively protests and rejects amoral and dishonourable actions. Because of this, HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s ideal human nature that Shakespeare personifies through HoratioÃ¢â¬â¢s character remains, until the time comes at the end of the play, unlike HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s own. Preparing to fight Laertes, says to Horatio who is desperately trying to prevent the Prince from fencing, convinced he will lose: Ã¢â¬ËThere is special providence in the fall of a sparrowÃ¢â¬â¢ (5.2). This whole speech signifies the way Hamlet matures from admiring into exhibiting Stoic ideals, yet applying them in a more universal way than Horatio. Through hardship and experience Hamlet accepts Fate, but refuses to step aside and give up fighting for his cause. He takes HoratioÃ¢â¬â¢s logic and focus, acknowledges all the basis of the teachings of Stoicism, yet unites this with his burning desire to fight evil and restore justice. HoratioÃ¢â¬â¢s attempts to save Hamlet from death are doomed, because the protagonist believes the question about his own life has been decided, and thus no longer bothers him. A true Stoic does not fear death. HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s mysterious last words, uttered to Horatio, echo this: Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ ¦ the rest is silenceÃ¢â¬â¢ (5. 2. 351) Furthermore, if at the beginning of the play Hamlet and Horatio lack the virtues of each other (Hamlet, unlike his friend, cannot distance himself from anxieties, whereas Horatio comes across as almost emotionally withdrawn), by the end different dimensions of both characters are revealed to us. Horatio, although still wise and composed, truly loves Hamlet. Realising the imminence of the PrinceÃ¢â¬â¢s death, Horatio grabs the cup with the remaining poison, ready to follow his friend in death. Hamlet stops him and, on his deathbed, urges Horatio to remember the philosophy they both adored, and live by it: Ã¢â¬ËIf thou didst ever hold me in thy heart, Absent thee from felicity awhile, And in this harsh world draw thy breath in pain To tell my story. Ã¢â¬Ë It is important that Hamlet hands over his secret to Horatio, trusting him to clear his name and justify his actions to posterity. Horatio obeys and we trust him to communicate the truth, restoring HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s innocence. HoratioÃ¢â¬â¢s character helps us to understand Hamlet better, to realise how the protagonist matures, and witness the best in him even as he lay dying. ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s inclusion of Horatio and his relationship with Hamlet stresses the importance of nobility, dignity, felicity and other moral principles and virtues valued by the Ancient. And lastly, Horatio rules out a conclusive judgment concerning HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s death and his suffering, and tells of them as Ã¢â¬Ëcarnal, bloody and unnatural actsÃ¢â¬â¢ ensuring the audience perceived those strong feelings too.
Thursday, January 9, 2020
managing change in british petroleum CONTENTS: * A view of British Petroleum * A brief description of BP incident in the Gulf of Mexico. * Critical Evaluation of Potential changes that may take place in BP * Evaluation the importance of change and Potential problems when implementing change * Evaluation the effectiveness of BP strategy for managing change within the organisation * Conclusion * A view of British Petroleum British Petroleum also known as BP Amoco is one of the largest petroleum industries located primarily in London. It is regarded as one of the top four petroleum and oil petroleum firms and establishment in the global market. BP plc (British Petroleum) is anÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Efforts by multiple ships to douse the flames were unsuccessful. After burning for approximately 36 hours, the Deepwater Horizon sank on the morning of 22 April 2010. As a result, the drilling riser running from the wellhead on the ocean floor up to the oil rig was destroyed. 24 April, Landry announced that a damaged wellhead was indeed leaking oil into the Gulf and described it as a very serious spill. BP has not given a cause for the explosion. According to the US Congressional investigation the rigs blowout preventer, a fail - safe device fitted at the base of the well, built by Cameron International Corporation, had a hydraulic leak and a failed battery, and therefore failed. * Spill flow rate To date, almost 116,000 claims have been submitted and more than 67,500 payments have been made, totalling $207 million. The cost of the response to date amounts to approximately $3.95 billion, including the cost of the spill response, containment, relief well drilling, grants to the Gulf states, claims paid, and federal costs. 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